Wednesday, 18 July 2012

Students' Misconception of Teaching Games for Understanding in Relation to Self-Efficacy


Students' Misconception of Teaching Games for Understanding in Relation to
Self-Efficacy


Julismah Jani
Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia

Phil Pearson, Greg Forrest and Paul Webb
University of Wollongong, Australia


Abstract

At the Australian university where this study took place, it was assumed by the physical education lecturers that final year students should be familiar with Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) because they had already satisfied course program requirements and that they would therefore be able to benefit from the teaching of games content during teaching practice. The lecturers also assumed that as students progressed through their studies at university, what they learnt in TGfU modules studied at Year 2 would prepare them for Year 3 and, finally, Year 4. However, when collectively reflecting on lecturers’ teaching experience, what they have frequently observed is that merely satisfying course and module does not ensure an understanding of TGfU concepts among students. This study represents a preliminary investigation to track the prevalent misconceptions about teaching games for understanding of fourth year students in Physical and Health Education program at an Australian university and its relation to their self-efficacy. The misconception instrument with reliability of KR-20=.52, consists of 20 dichotomous questions with true/false answers (Bond & Fox, 2007: Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences (2nd ed.), 15-27, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers: Mahwah, New Jersey London). The self-efficacy questionnaires (a=.86) consists of 20 items of 5-point Likert-type scale (Bandura, 2006: Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales, Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents, 307–337, Information Age Publishing: Charlotte, North Carolina). The questions were constructed from researched literature and mostly worded as statements from the texts. Fifty-seven fourth year students enrolled during class session were asked for their consent prior to completing the misconception and self-efficacy questionnaires in the fourth week of their spring semester. Descriptive statistics for misconception variables were examined, and correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between misconceptions and self-efficacy. Of the 20 questions related to conceptualisation of TGfU, four misconceptions appeared to be prevalent among the fourth year physical education majors. It was found that 71.93% (N=57) students conceptualised TGfU, ‘as having four categories with similar concepts and tactical problems across all four games categories’. Other misconceptions variables that did not score more than 70% with correct answers are as follows; 45.61% students conceptualised TGfU, as teaching tactics and not teaching skills’, 57.89% ‘in which students play games in order to further understand the importance of skill progression and skill practice’, and 40.35% ‘approach is that a teacher needs to know all of the intricacies (technical and tactical) of each game to teach it to students’. The self-efficacy test related to TGfU was analysed and it was found that five out of ten questions that students scored more than 80% on agreement of their belief and perception about TGfU. Eight out of ten questions, students scored more than 80% of their capability in teaching related to TGfU. Correlation between misconceptions and self-efficacy were also examined and the results demonstrated were not significant with a very weak relationship between misconceptions and self-efficacy [r (57) = .09, p = .517]. Gaining insight into the way in which students view TGfU may help better inform lecturers about their students’ cognitive barriers. Results acquired by this study may assist in preparing lecturers to be located within the curriculum and associated with relevant teaching strategies if TGfU is to be made useful for students. 

KAEDAH TGFU


Teaching Games for Understanding adalah pendekatan mengajar yang menerapkan budaya berfikir kreatif dan inovatif dalam proses pembelajaran seseorang pelajar Menyediakan persekitaran pembelajaran holistik dan konstruktif. Konsep TGfU ialah pelajar perlu memahami aspek taktikal dan strategi bermain sebelum kepada penguasaan teknik kemahiran. Pelajar perlu memahami mengapa, bila dan di mana untuk melakukan sesuatu taktik dan strategi dalam permainan sebelum mereka belajar bagaimana menguasai kemahiran-kemahiran pergerakan fizikal. Guru yang mengajar Pendidikan Jasmani khusus dalam tajuk permainan perlu anjakan paradigma ke arah mengajar Teaching Games for Understanding.

TGFU - INVASION GAMES

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TGFU - NET & WALL

Kepentingan Teaching Games for Understanding



·         Menekankan konsep apresiasi dalam permainan kerana melibatkan kesedaran taktikal sebagai asas membuat keputusan semasa bermain.

·         Menggalakkan pelajar melibatkan diri dalam pelbagai permainan dengan memberi ruang dan peluang meneroka dan belajar dalam pergerakan kemahiran fizikal dalam lingkungan konteks aktiviti fizikal, mengekalkan minat untuk belajar dan menimbulkan keseronokan semasa bermain. TGfU mencadangkan cara seseorang mampu menghargai keseronokan bermain ke arah membina daya usaha atau kesungguhan belajar teknik kemahiran untuk meningkatkan permainan.

·         Menyediakan persekitaran pembelajaran holistik dan konstruktif melalui beberapa soalan bagi menyokong proses belajar semasa aktiviti bermain. Meningkatkan aras domain pembelajaran kognitif dengan penggunaan permasalahan taktikal dan penyelesaian yang mengatasi atau melebihi (transcend) pelbagai permainan dan pendekatan sebagai tulang belakang. Pelajar bukan sahaja memahami apa yang mereka patut tahu untuk berjaya dalam permainan, tetapi yang lebih penting bila dan mengapa untuk membuat keputusan dalam konteks permainan yang dinamik dan pelbagai.

·         TGfU fokus kepada pemusatan pelajar dan pemusatan bermain untuk membantu pelajar perkembangkan dan menghasilkan kemahiran yang betul yang dikehendaki supaya dapat mengambil bahagian dalam sukan tertentu.

·         TGfU menyediakan pelajar dengan peluang memikul tanggungjawab ke atas pembelajaran melalui pergerakan pada diri sendiri dan orang lain, kemahiran sosial, bersikap positif dan nilai. Membenarkan pelajar mengalihkan pengalaman belajar melalui alam penerokaan dan mengaplikasikan pengalaman tersebut dalam bidang perkembangan pergerakan kognitif.  

STRIKING & FIELDING

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PENGENALAN TGFU


Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) dalam pengertian Bahasa Malaysia ialah mengajar memahami permainan iaitu guru mengajar dan pelajar belajar memahami konsep permainan sambil bermain. TGfU dipelopori oleh Bunker dan Thorpe (1982) yang bermatlamat untuk memperkembangkan kemahiran kognitif dan psikomotor individu dalam sukan berdasarkan penyelesaian masalah dan membuat keputusan. Pendekatan TGfU adalah kepada pemahaman taktikal dan strategi bermain sebelum kepada penguasaan teknik kemahiran (Ara├║jo et al, 2007; Bunker & Thorpe, 1982; Griffin, Mitchell, & Oslin, 1997). Pelajar perlu memahami mengapa, bila dan di mana untuk melakukan sesuatu taktik dan strategi dalam permainan sebelum mereka belajar bagaimana menguasai kemahiran.

TGfU juga menekankan konsep apresiasi dalam permainan kerana pendekatan ini melibatkan kesedaran taktikal sebagai asas membuat keputusan semasa bermain. Sehubungan itu, pelajar perlu memahami strategi tentang mengapa sesuatu permainan itu perlu dipelajari sebelum mereka belajar bagaimana menguasai sesuatu kemahiran. Dengan itu, pelajar menyedari bila dan mengapa kemahiran diperlukan dalam konteks bermain.

Falsafah TGfU ialah pelajar perlu tahu dan faham bagaimana untuk menjayakan sesuatu permainan serta berkebolehan mengaplikasikan kemahiran pergerakan/fizikal sambil belajar membuat keputusan ketika bermain. Permainan disertai dengan beberapa soalan berbimbing bagi menggalakkan pelajar menguasai permainan melalui kaedah menyelesaikan masalah. Mengalihkan konsep mengajar kemahiran secara berpusatkan latihan atau individu kepada pendekatan mengajar berpusatkan strategi bermain secara berkumpulan.